11 findings about diversity in America’s workforce

In 2015, this is the changing face of U.S. jobs.
Major demographic shifts in the U.S. since 2001 have led to a workforce that looks quite different today, according to a new report from CareerBuilder. "The Changing Face of U.S. Jobs" explores how an increasingly diverse population is affecting the composition of nearly 800 occupations by gender, age and race/ethnicity.

In 2015, this is the changing face of U.S. jobs.

1. Women make up greater share of workforce.
In 2014, 49 percent of jobs were held by women, compared to 48 percent in 2001. That amounts to 4.9 million more female workers since 2001 compared to just 2.2 million additional male workers.
2. Men are performing a wider variety of work.
Despite gains in overall workforce participation by women, men are gaining a share of employment in 72 percent of all occupations. Examples include gains in female-majority occupations like pharmacists, credit analysts and physical therapists.

3. Occupational segregation contributes to pay gap.
Jobs with a high concentration of male workers pay significantly more per hour, on average, than jobs with a high concentration of female workers: $25.49 median hourly earnings for men vs. $20.85 median hourly earnings for women.
4. Women are losing share of employment in high-paying jobs.
Since 2001, women lost ground in 48 out of the 50 highest paying jobs, including surgeons, chief executives, lawyers and software developers. They gained share among lawyers and political scientists.
5. Job losses have come primarily in male-majority jobs.
Among the occupations that lost 10,000 jobs or more since 2001, 76 percent were male-majority occupations. As jobs went away in these fields, male workers had to find work in a broader array of occupations.
6. Occupations with largest gains are mostly female-majority.
Among the occupations that gained 75,000 jobs or more, 69 percent were female-majority. The largest gains in the workforce for women occurred in a smaller number of sizable occupations.
7. Women dominate college graduation numbers, but not in top-paying fields.
While 5.6 million more women than men attained college degrees from 2004-2013, men continue to lead in programs that typically lead to higher-paying jobs, such as computer science (83 percent of 2013 grads), engineering (79 percent), law (54 percent) and postgraduate business (54 percent).
8. The most dramatic demographic shift in workforce composition is age.
The teenage workforce is 33 percent smaller than in 2001, while the age 55 and older workforce grew 40 percent. Jobs for young professionals (age 22-34) grew only 4 percent, while employment for workers age 35-54 shrunk by 1 percent.
9. The aging workforce is felt in virtually all occupations.
Moreover, workers 55 and older make up 25 percent of the workforce in 210 occupations. There were only 86 such occupations in 2014.

10. The U.S. population is more racially and ethnically diverse now than at the turn of the century, and so is the workforce.
Hispanic/Latino and Asian workers make up a greater share of the workforce now than in 2001. Hispanics/Latinos held 13 percent of jobs in 2014, up from 11 percent in 2001, and Asians held 5 percent of jobs in 2014, up from 4 percent in 2001. White workers, meanwhile, lost share of total employment, dropping from 71 percent in 2001 to 69 percent in 2014. Black/African American workers held 12 percent of all jobs in 2014, unchanged from 2001.
11. College graduates are significantly more diverse than in 2004.
Non-white students made up 37 percent of all associate, bachelor's and post-grad completers in 2013, up from 30 percent in 2004.

Spring Clean for Your Job Search

Miriam Salpeter

business scene

As we look to spring and thoughts turn to spring cleaning, planting flowers and mowing lawns, it's also a good time to re-evaluate your job search plans. Has your approach been working well for you, or have you met with little success?

If your job search strategy isn't panning out the way you planned, consider the following changes:

1. First thing to evaluate: does your target job exist?

Are you looking for a job that doesn't exist? It's possible your type of position is no longer being filled as a full-time job, but will go to a contractor. Some positions are being replaced with automated systems or being sent overseas, and other jobs are going to contractors and short-term workers instead of permanent employees. (Temp to perm has become a reality for a lot of people.)

Even if you're doing everything "right," if you are looking for a job that doesn't exist, you're likely going to continue to be very frustrated. Your choice? Either a) hang a shingle (maybe a virtual shingle) and think about going into business for yourself as an independent contractor or b) read on!

2. Take some classes.

It's easy to retrain for job skills, as many community colleges and other service organizations offer classes and certifications. You can also turn to online classes, either for credit or for your own edification. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), which are offered by a variety of educational institutions online, are increasingly available. A study by Duke University and RTI International said 73 percent of employers would appreciate candidates who completed MOOCs.

3. Is it time to change career paths or directions altogether?

Research and identify growth fields and careers to learn if you may be a good candidate for opportunities in the new industry. Make sure to target your resume and other materials to your new goal employer. (This is very important, as transitioning between fields is not an easy thing to do, especially when there is a lot of competition for jobs.) Talk to people about their work and prospects in their industries. Read articles that feature future projections for industries and identify those that interest you and where your skills are a good match. Be realistic about your interests and opportunities, and you may find a new field is just the ticket to a new job.

4. Make sure your job search materials help you stand out from the crowd.

If you have a tired and outdated resume, people will assume you are not suitable for their workplace. For example, nix the "objective" and the language detailing what the company can do for you. Focus on what you offer the organization and more employers will come calling.

5. Don't be too picky.

Do you have a certain vision of the type of job you're willing to do? Maybe you don't even LIKE the work you did in the past, but you have your mind set on doing it again. Have you been too particular about the type of people or places where you want to work? (A 20-minute commute - absolutely not! Work for him – are you kidding? When pigs fly!) I am not suggesting you take just "any" job, but it may be a good time to take a good, long, hard look at what you want and decide if you need to change your goals.

Maybe a longer commute is worth it if you can land a job at X company or in Y field or industry. Decide what parameters you can change and refocus your search with new vigor. You never know how opening up a few new windows may result in an open door.      

The Top 10 Strangest Interview Questions

Plus tips on how to answer them

When you go into an interview, you probably have answers ready for "tell me about yourself" or "why do you want to work at this company?", but do you have an answer for "what is your favorite Disney Princess?" What about who would win in a fight between Spiderman and Batman? Or would you know the answer to this puzzle: how many people flew out of Chicago last year?

Glassdoor released their list of Top 10 Oddball Interview Questions for 2015 and some of those strange questions were actually asked by hiring managers and interviewers at Stanford University, Coldstone Creamery, Airbnb, and other desirable places to work.

So why are companies in almost every industry asking these strange questions? They may seem random, but they have a definite purpose.

"The reasons why companies ask these challenging, weird, brainteaser questions are simple," explains Scott Dobroski, Glassdoor Career Trends Analyst. "To test a candidate's critical thinking skills, to see how they problem solve on the spot, and as one extra way to help differentiate one candidate from another candidate. If you have two candidates that are virtually identical on paper, asking them really tough questions can be one way to figure out who is a better critical thinker."

Now we know why companies are asking these questions, but what is the right way to answer them? Dobroski says that the worst way to answer is to say "I don't know" or give a one-word response. OK, so maybe you have an elaborate, analytical answer for why Batman would beat Spiderman in a fight, but how are you supposed to know how many people flew out of Chicago last year? Once again, don't say "I don't know" or throw out a wild guess.

"Even if you don't know the exact answer, what you want to do is start sounding out how you would come to the solution. Start saying how you would tackle the challenge out loud, so they can see your thinking skills," says Dobroski.

So in the case of the Chicago airport puzzle, ask the interviewer what kind of resources you would have to figure out the answer. Verbalize out loud how if the internet was an available resource, you would look up how many planes fly out of Chicago O'Hare Airport a day, or whether the airport had statistics available online, and what kind of statistics you would be looking for.

Speaking of the internet, in this day and age, there's no excuse for not doing your research on a potential employer. For many companies, a simple search might reveal the type of questions you could be asked, or what kind of setting the interview will be taking place.

So check out the list of Glassdoor's Top 10 Oddball Interview Questions, as well as their Top 10 Oddball Interview Questions in Tech. If you have a big job interview coming up, practice them out loud with your friends and family. Even if your interviewers don't ask you for your favorite 90s jam, you'll be warming up your brain and mind. And if they do, you'll be ready.

Top 10 Oddball Interview Questions for 2015 – U.S.

1. "What would you do if you were the one survivor in a plane crash?" – Airbnb Trust and Safety Investigator job candidate (Portland, OR). More Airbnb interview questions.

2. "What's your favorite 90s jam?" – Squarespace Customer Care job candidate (Portland, OR). More Squarespace interview questions.

3. "If you woke up and had 2,000 unread emails and could only answer 300 of them, how would you choose which ones to answer?" – Dropbox Rotation Program job candidate (location n/a). More Dropbox interview questions.

4. "Who would win in a fight between Spiderman and Batman?" – Stanford University Medical Simulationist job candidate (Palo Alto, CA). More Stanford University interview questions.

5. "If you had a machine that produced $100 dollars for life, what would you be willing to pay for it today?" – Aksia Research Analyst job candidate (New York, NY). More Aksia interview questions.

6. "What did you have for breakfast?" – Banana Republic Sales Associate job candidate (New York, NY). More Banana Republic interview questions.

7. "Describe the color yellow to somebody who's blind." – Spirit Airlines Flight Attendant job candidate (Fort Lauderdale, FL). More Spirit Airlines interview questions.

8. "If you were asked to unload a 747 full of jellybeans, what would you do?" – Bose IT Support Manager job candidate (Framingham, MA). More Bose interview questions.

9. "How many people flew out of Chicago last year?" – Redbox Software Engineer II job candidate (Oakbrook Terrace, IL). More Redbox interview questions.

10. "What's your favorite Disney Princess?" – Coldstone Creamery Crew Member job candidate (Miami, FL). More Coldstone Creamery interview questions.

Top 10 Oddball Interview Questions in Tech
1. "What would you do if you were the one survivor in a plane crash?"­ Airbnb Trust and Safety Investigator job candidate (Portland, OR). More Airbnb interview questions.

2. "What's your favorite 90s jam?" ­ Squarespace Customer Care job candidate (Portland, OR). More Squarespace interview questions.

3. "If you woke up and had 2,000 unread emails and could only answer 300 of them, how would you choose which ones to answer?" ­ Dropbox Rotation Program job candidate (location n/a). More Dropbox interview questions.

4. "How many people flew out of Chicago last year?²" ­ Redbox Software Engineer II job candidate (Oakbrook Terrace, IL). More Redbox interview questions.

5. "How much do you charge to wash every window in Seattle?" ­ Facebook Online Sales Operations job candidate (Chicago, IL). More Facebook interview questions.

6. "Given 25 swimmers and a pool with five lanes, what is the minimum number of heats needed to determine the three fastest swimmers in the group?" ­ CKM Advisors Data Scientist job candidate (location n/a). More CKM Advisors interview questions.

7. "If you were a Muppet, which would you be?" ­ TicketNetwork Executive Support job candidate (location n/a). More TicketNetwork interview questions.

8. "How many gas stations are there in America?" ­ Zappos Family Senior Financial Analyst job candidate (location n/a). More Zappos Family interview questions.

9. "You have a 1 mile long x 1 mile wide private island that you wish to turn into a resort. A plane requires a 2-mile long runway to take off. What do you do?" ­ Riot Games QA Analyst job candidate (location n/a). More Riot Games interview questions.
10. "Why is the earth round?" ­ Twitter Software Engineer job candidate (location n/a). More Twitter interview questions.      

Do’s and don’ts for successfully negotiating your salary

DO get the most you can, and DON'T forget to do your research. Here's how.
You wrote a killer resume. The interview process went off without a hitch. You can feel it: A job offer is coming your way. This is great news, but before you start planning your new commute, there are some final steps to getting the job that you're going to want to focus on—and they all involve salary.

Negotiating your salary offer can be stressful, and you may be worried about turning off the employer by an unknowingly unreasonable salary requirement. Here's what you need to do—and don't need to—when negotiating your salary.

DO research beforehand
You may have a number in your head that you'd like to make, but basing your ideal paycheck on hard facts, such as industry standards, company billings and the availability of quality candidates for that role will get you further in negotiation talks. Cheryl E. Palmer, certified career coach and owner of Call to Career, says, "Employers generally have a range in mind for what they intend to pay a new hire. Job seekers need to do their salary research […] so that they go into the negotiation process knowing what the market will bear."
Begin your research process by accessing resources like the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Occupational Outlook Handbook or CareerBuilder Salary Calculator. You'll learn about salary trends, certifications that can get you higher earning power and how competitive positions are in the current market.

DON'T be the first to bring up salary talks
"Whoever mentions salary first loses," Palmer says. "Generally speaking, once one side—either the job seeker or the employer—mentions a dollar figure, the other side is in a stronger position to negotiate. So if the employer asks you what you are looking for, it's best to say, 'Could you tell me what the salary range is for this position?' If you immediately volunteer a dollar amount, the salary discussion will be based on that amount. The converse is also true. If the company representative states a dollar amount first, the salary negotiation process will start from there. Thus, it is your best interest to avoid mentioning a dollar amount first if at all possible."

DO offer a salary range
If you're pressed for a salary requirement, you still have options for negotiating your salary without losing the upper hand. "Don't lock yourself in to a specific dollar amount," Palmer says. Instead, she recommends giving a range that you're open to. "That still leaves you room for negotiation. There is not a lot of wiggle room with a specific dollar amount."

DON'T accept the first offer
If you've managed to persuade the company to offer the first salary figure, remember that it's just that: the first offer. "Usually the first offer is not the company's best offer," Palmer says. "It is generally expected that you will try to negotiate even though the competition for jobs is stiff. You may not be able to negotiate the same salary that you could before the economic downturn, but it is still worth it to negotiate. You don't want to feel taken advantage of after you start your new job."

DO make a strong case
Not all negotiation talks will go smoothly, but that's no reason to be deterred from getting money that's on the table—in any form. "If you are lowballed, negotiate based on how well your qualifications match the requirements of the position," Palmer says. "An employer will not be impressed if you try to negotiate based on what you made previously. The current job market is filled with qualified candidates. However, you are in a strong position to negotiate a higher salary if you are pretty much a perfect match for the position. The best thing to do is to reiterate what the position requires and restate the fact that you have exactly what they are looking for. Then you can say, 'My salary research shows that the going rate for someone with my qualifications and experience is between $X and $Y.' This makes your request for a higher salary objective instead of subjective."

DON'T forget to investigate other benefits or perks
If you're not able to get what you want from a monetary perspective, you may still have a few tricks left up your sleeve for negotiating a better employment package. Palmer says, "Health insurance and paid leave are worth money too, and they shouldn't be taken lightly. These can be negotiable. For example, if you already have health insurance through your spouse, you could try to negotiate a higher salary level since the employer will not be paying your premiums. You could also try to negotiate more paid leave, especially if you plan to use that extra vacation time to do consulting work to boost your income."
Though salary talks can be nerve-wracking, it's a crucial final step to securing the job and ensuring that you're fairly compensated for your work. And that's a final step you definitely want to take. 

The 8 most impressive questions you can ask in a job interview

Top picks from the Young Entrepreneur Council

Young man have job interview.

By Jacquelyn Smith

Job interviews are a two-way street.

The hiring manager asks the applicant questions to figure out if they're the ideal candidate, while the interviewee asks the employer questions to figure out if they're the right fit.

But even when the hiring manager is the one in the hot seat, they're still evaluating you as a potential employee. So it's imperative that you ask good, smart questions - ones that will impress the interviewer.

Dave Kerpen, CEO of Likeable Local and author of "Likeable Social Media," recently asked a few of his friends at the Young Entrepreneur Council (YEC), an invite-only organization comprised of the world's most promising young entrepreneurs, to share the one most impressive interview question applicants have asked (or that they wish applicants would ask).

He published their responses (as well as his own favorite question) in a recent LinkedIn post.

Here are our favorites:

1. What can I help to clarify that would make hiring me an easy decision? -Dan Pickett, cofounder of Launch Academy

2. How do you see this position evolving in the next three years? -Jared Brown, cofounder of Hubstaff

3. What's the most frustrating part of working here? -Avery Fisher, president of Remedify

4. Who's your ideal candidate and how can I make myself more like them? -Phil Laboon, president of Eyeflow Internet Marketing

5. How did you get your start? -Jayna Cooke, CEO of EVENTup

6. What keeps you up at night? -Kofi Kankam, CEO of Admit.me

7. What concerns/reservations do you have about me for this position? -John Berkowitz, cofounder and Chief Revenue Officer of Yodle

8. How will the work I'll be doing contribute to the organization's mission? -Dave Kerpen, founder and CEO of Likeable Local.

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